La lezione e l'eredità di Raffaello a dialogo con l'Appia antica

Chiunque si trovi a percorrere l’Appia, a piedi o in bicicletta, ha un motivo in più per una sosta al Complesso di Capo di Bove. Dal 18 settembre al 29 novembre questo presidio dell’attività di tutela archeologica e paesaggistica – svolta dallo Stato attraverso il Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali e per il turismo – accoglie una piccola, ma illuminante mostra, concentrata in una sola sala, che indaga un aspetto importante della portentosa mente di Raffaello e l’eredità della sua fama tra i posteri.Tutto ha inizio da una lettera, concepita e stesa nel 1519, insieme a Baldassarre Castiglione, nella quale Raffaello affida a papa Leone X la via maestra per aver cura delle rovine “di questa antica madre della gloria e della grandezza italiana” affinché la bellezza non sia “estirpata” dalle distruzioni e dagli sventramenti perpetrati a Roma nei primi decenni del Cinquecento “dalli maligni e ignoranti”. Questo celebre scritto – riprodotto in mostra su uno schermo che ne consente lo sfoglio e l’ascolto – consacrerà Raffaello a padre della moderna cultura della tutela del patrimonio monumentale, archeologico e artistico, facendo dell’Urbinate una sorta di strenuo difensore ante litteram dei principi alla base dell’articolo 9 della nostra Costituzione. Pirro Ligorio, Tomba di Cecilia Metella, disegno, 1560-1566, Napoli, Biblioteca Nazionale, XIII.B.10, f. 67 | Courtesy MiBACT / Biblioteca Nazionale “Vittorio Emanuele III, NapoliCurata da Ilaria Sgarbozza, promossa dal Parco Archeologico dell’Appia Antica con l’organizzazione di Electa e il sostegno del Comitato Nazionale per le celebrazioni dei 500 anni dalla morte di Raffaello, la mostra La lezione di Raffaello. Le antichità romane accoglie 29 opere che raccontano questa consacrazione del pittore di Urbino. Ma non solo. Entrando nella piccola sala che la ospita – nella quale sono ammessi massimo sei visitatori per volta – l’allestimento è d’impatto. Dipinti, incisioni, libri e disegni invitano a ripercorrere la fortuna sette-ottocentesca della Lettera a Leone X, nata come testo introduttivo a una pianta antiquaria della città di Roma mai realizzata per la prematura scomparsa dell’artista. L’attualità di una lettera di 500 anni faL’epistola esalta la magnificenza della città, deplora l’immane perdita del patrimonio archeologico, auspica la riappropriazione della cultura architettonica antica, prospetta il rilievo dei monumenti esemplari, secondo un metodo ‘scientifico’. Le opere ne tracciano la storia sette-ottocentesca, a partire dalla prima edizione a stampa del 1733. Antiquari, storici, accademici scelgono di inserire questa lettera – diventata presto un testo di riferimento per la teoria e la pratica della conservazione – nei loro studi eruditi o nelle biografie dedicate all’artista e ad altri personaggi della Roma del Rinascimento, mentre i fratelli Franz e Johannes Riepenhausen la mettono in scena in un’incisione che fa il giro delle corti europee, presentata in mostra in un esemplare romano. Johannes Riepenhausen, Leone X nello studio di Raffaello Pittore Scultore e Architetto, tavola IX della Vita di Raffaele da Urbino disegnata da G. Riepenhausen, Roma 1841, Biblioteca Hertziana | Courtesy Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max-Planck-Institut für KunstgeschichteLe due opere da non perdere Colpisce in mostra l’illustrazione dalla serie Vita di Raffaello di Urbino disegnata da G. Riepenhausen, nella quale Raffaello è impegnato a mostrare a Leone X i tesori emersi dagli scavi. La mano del pontefice sulla spalla dell’artista enfatizza il rapporto confidenziale tra i due, mentre dall’incrocio di sguardi trapela una reciproca fiducia. A spiccare per il suo carattere intimo è invece un piccolo olio su tela di Francesco Hayez, che tramanda il concitato momento della morte di Raffaello, al cui capezzale non si riconoscono grandi personaggi, bensì gli amici fedeli e l’amata Fornarina. L’adorata Fornarina, accanto a Raffaello, è al centro della tela di un ignoto autore tedesco o ancora di un’opera di Filippo Bigioli. Il “culto” di Raffaello Dal tema della tutela l’esposizione si allarga al culto da parte dei pittori nei confronti dell’Urbinate. Tra questi, Ingres del quale si riconosce in mostra il foglio acquarellato Vergine dei candelabri. Un altro aspetto sul quale il percorso insiste è la straordinaria attualità del pittore come figura di riferimento della comunità artistica internazionale. Fino alla metà del XIX secolo, infatti, la riproduzione incisoria delle creazioni raffaellesche terrà in vita stamperie pubbliche e private, condizionando il gusto contemporaneo. A Roma Giovanni Volpato e Raffaello Morghen, tra gli altri, mettono a punto tecniche di traduzione a stampa molto fedeli al linguaggio del maestro. Mentre, all’alba dell’Ottocento, anche la biografia di Raffaello diventa fonte d’ispirazione. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Vergine dei Candelabri, 1806-1820, dal dipinto di Raffaello, grafite e acquarello su carta, Montauban, Musée Ingres Bourdelle | Foto: © Marc Jeanneteau In mostra ritroviamo l’artista al centro di un Ritratto di Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, e ancora in un delicato olio su tela di Francesco Gandolfi che lo immortala assieme alla sua Fornarina, o scolpito in un busto-erma, opera di Pietro Fontana. Ilaria Sgarbozza: “una mostra di approfondimento dedicata a chi visita l’Appia”“Questa mostra – spiega la curatrice Ilaria Sgarbozza – vuole essere un approfondimento della lettera destinata a Leone X, un caposaldo che inaugura la storia della tutela diventando un testo di riferimento per la cultura europea. Chiunque percorra l’Appia può apprezzare questo omaggio all’artista”. Raffaello e la Regina viarumIl percorso affronta un altro tema interessante ricostruendo il rapporto tra Raffaello e l’Appia. Siamo in possesso di documenti che ci illuminano sul rapporto tra l’Urbinate e la regina viarum? “Purtroppo no – spiega Ilaria Sgarbozza -. L’unica documentazione che ci rimane, relativa al rapporto tra l’artista e la Regina viarum, sono i disegni. Precisamente tracce di campagne di rilievo dei monumenti sepolcrali nel suburbio dell’Appia che l’artista chiede ai suoi allievi di raccogliere in funzione del progetto di studio globale dell’antichità. D’altra parte nella cerchia di Raffaello si guardava all’antico per trovare ispirazione, nel solco del classicismo”. Tuttavia sarà Pirro Ligorio, a metà Cinquecento, a intraprendere il sistematico rilevamento, soprattutto grazie alla conoscenza del materiale prodotto nella bottega dell’Urbinate. Tra le 20 sepolture indagate da Ligorio tra il II e il V miglio della regina viarum, il Sepolcro di Cecilia Metella gode di particolare rilievo. Con la sua galleria di monumenti sepolcrali, Ligorio inaugura le successive ricostruzioni dell’immagine della Regina viarum: da quelle piranesiane a quelle contemporanee, smaterializzate e in 3D. Capo di Bove e Antonio Cederna La visita alla mostra offre l’occasione per visitare il Complesso di Capo di Bove e di approfondire una problematica importante che ha abbracciato, nei secoli, la via Appia, prima che l’opera di tutela auspicata da Raffaello facesse il suo corso. “Il Complesso di Capo Bove – ricorda Simone Quilici, direttore del Parco archeologico dell’Appia antica – ospita l’Archivio Antonio Cederna, il “padre” del Parco dell’Appia antica. Al piano terra, un’esposizione permanente insiste sul tema della tutela della Regina viarum”. Tra le battaglie condotte da Antonio Cederna, “l’appiomane”, come amava definirsi, c’è quella per la tutela dell’Appia Antica, un autentico fil rouge durante tutta la sua esistenza. L’Appia nei secoli, tra venerazione e devastazione “La via Appia – spiega Simone Quilici – per il suo prestigio, per la venerazione suscitata, è sempre stata oggetto di particolare attenzione, sin dall’età antica. È questa la ragione principale per cui, malgrado tutte le distruzioni e le devastazioni che si sono susseguite nei secoli e che sono continuate fino ai nostri giorni, è stata possibile la sopravvivenza di un numero così alto di testimonianze disseminate lungo il suo tracciato”.La “Regina” spoliata “È solo a partire dal XVI secolo che il problema della conservazione si presenta come urgente – spiega Quilici -. Nella Roma del Medioevo e della prima età moderna la sottrazione dei rivestimenti marmorei, ma anche delle selci dell’antico basolato, come materiali da costruzione, è infatti prassi corrente. A tal punto che papa Paolo III, nel 1534, istituisce la figura del Commissario delle Antichità per tutelare i monumenti antichi, a rischio di scomparsa, e controllare l’attività di scavo. Una misura che fa seguito ai noti appelli di Raffaello e Pirro Ligorio per la conservazione delle memorie sopravvissute in città e lungo le vie consolari”.Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Ritratto di Raffaello, primo quarto del XIX secolo, da Marcantonio Raimondi, grafite su carta, Montauban, Musée Ingres Bourdelle | Foto: © Marc Jeanneteau Raffaello e il Complesso di Capo di Bove. Una curiosità“Fino al 2000 – spiega Carmelina Ariosto, archeologa del Parco Archeologico Appia Antica – nessun monumento dell’Appia era visitabile. Nel 2002 la Soprintendenza Archeologica di Roma e il Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali hanno acquistato l’area per l’interesse archeologico sancito anche da un vincolo specifico. Eppure, nonostante l’impegno scientifico, questa acquisizione destò scandalo e fu osteggiata. Alla fine la Soprintendenza ebbe la meglio. Eccezionali scoperte dimostrarono che il luogo faceva parte del Triopio di Erode Attico. Non poteva quindi esserci luogo più adatto per vivere la lezione di Raffaello: salvare le vestigia e fare in modo che la città non rimanga “ossa del corpo senza carne” (come scrive Raffaello). Con la mostra su Raffaello abbiamo voluto provare a indicare plasticamente il punto di approdo della sua ricerca”. Leggi anche:• Raffaello e i tesori di Roma antica: l’attualità di una lettera di 500 anni fa• Parte il rilancio dell’Appia antica: ne parla Simone Quilici
Source: Arte NEWS

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