Un altro tesoro alla Cappella di Sansevero a Napoli: Il Disinganno di Francesco Queirolo.

Dopo il Cristo velato di Giuseppe Sanmartino e insieme alla Pudicizia di Antonio Corradini, Il Disinganno è la scultura più celebre della Cappella Sansevero.
L’opera fu realizzata tra il 1753 e il 1754 da uno scultore genovese, Francesco Queirolo chiamato a Napoli dal Principe Raimondo di Sangro proprio per la fama della sua straordinaria abilità tecnica. Non a caso una fonte settecentesca definisce “Il Disinganno” l’ultima prova ardita cui può azzardarsi la scultura in marmo e in effetti il virtuosismo tardo Barocco dello scultore raggiunge il suo culmine proprio nella impossibile verosimiglianza della rete marmorea che lascia ammirati soprattutto quando la si osservi nelle parti in cui essa non aderisce al corpo del soggetto principale del gruppo scultoreo. Nell’ambito delle virtù della Cappella Sansevero Il Disinganno ha due peculiarità: la prima è che essa – come ci ricorda lastessa fonte settecentesca – è tutta di invenzione del Principe di Sansevero mentre è noto che per le altre allegorie del tempio barocco il Principe Raimondo di Sangro ebbe come punto di riferimento un diffusissimo repertorio iconografico”L’iconologia” di Cesare Ripa stampato alla fine del Cinquecento e ristampato più volte nei secoli successivi; la seconda peculiarità dell’opera riguarda invece il soggetto cui Il Disinganno è dedicato. Il Principe Raimondo infatti volle innalzare l’opera alla memoria del padre Antonio di Sangro Duca di Torre Maggiore e questo fa sì che Il Disinganno tra le virtù della Cappella Sansevero sia l’unica ad essere dedicata alla memoria di un uomo e non di una donna del nobile casato.Antonio di Sangro ebbe una vita avventurosa, disordinata fu addirittura accusato di essere il mandante di un delitto, ma alla fine della sua esistenza si pentì degli errori commessi e prese i voti sacerdotali. L’uomo è quindi rappresentato nell’attodi divincolarsi dalla rete dell’inganno e del peccato e in questa azione viene aiutato da un “genietto” alato sul cui capo arde una fiamma, la fiamma dell’intelletto, grazie alla quale ci si affranca dalle passioni mondane rappresentate invece dal globo terrestre.

Nell’opera è molto presente il tema del contrasto luce – tenebre, sia nelle parole bibliche incise sul libro aperto sia ancora nel bassorilievo scolpito sul basamento che rappresenta Gesù che dona la vista al cieco, miracolo di Gesù accompagnato dal versetto evangelico “Qui non vident, videant”. Come ha evidenziato per prima Rosanna Cioffi nell’opera possono cogliersi “chiari echi massonici” se si considera ad esempio che nei cerimoniali di ricezione della Massoneria del Regno di Napoli colui che voleva essere ammesso nella loggia definiva se stesso letteralmente “un cieco che chiede la luce”. Al di là dei rimandi esoterici, la modernità del Disinganno sta anche nelle parole che il Principe Raimondo di Sangro volle dedicare al padre sulla lapide in cui ricorda come alla fragilità umana non sia concesso possedere grandi virtù senza vizi, senza cioè passare attraverso l’errore. L’incredibile perizia tecnica e la potenza del messaggio del Disinganno sollecitarono la sensibilità e l’immaginario di celebri personalità come ad esempio Fortunato Bartolomeo De Felice, editore illuminista, o Herman Melville l’autore di Moby Dick e continuano a destare l’ammirazione di chiunque osservi questo incredibile prodotto di un Barocco ormai avviato al suo crepuscolo.
Source: Arte NEWS

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