Con Elena Percivaldi sulle tracce dei Longobardi, un popolo che cambiò la storia

Da quando Velleio Patercolo li descrisse come gens germana feritate ferocior, “un popolo più feroce della ferocia germanica”, con i loro tratti barbarici e la furia devastatrice, il giudizio della storia sul popolo “dalle lunghe barbe” fu destinato a essere per sempre offuscato da una sorta di ingiusto cliché. Eppure, da quando tra il 568 e il 569, guidati dal Alboino, i Longobardi entrarono a Cividale del Friuli, stabilendo in questa cittadina romana dalla posizione strategica, il loro avamposto per la conquista dell’Italia, insediandovi il primo ducato con Gisulfo, la storia dell’Italia fu destinata a cambiare per sempre, e non sempre in peggio. A fornirci uno sguardo inedito e a 360 gradi sulla vicenda dei Longobardi, la cui dominazione, durata due secoli (568-774), ebbe un impatto decisivo anche sulle istituzioni, sul diritto, ma soprattutto sulle chiese, i monasteri, gli edifici pubblici, la lingua, è la medievista e giornalista Elena Percivaldi. Nel suo volume Longobardi. Un popolo alle radici della nostra storia, edito da DIARKOS e uscito in libreria il 14 luglio, l’autrice racconta come questo popolo abbia svolto una funzione di “ponte” tra il Mediterraneo e il Nord Europa. Adelchi, Principe di Benevento, Dal Codex Legum Langobardorum, XI secolo, Cava de’ Tirreni, Archivio della Badia 4, Fol. 188Ma in che modo la loro presenza è stata così decisiva per la nostra cultura? “Senza i Longobardi – spiega Elena Percivaldi – la storia d’Italia non sarebbe stata la stessa. Questo popolo ha avuto la capacità di sintetizzare tradizioni culturali diverse, ponendosi come anello di congiunzione in una particolare epoca di transizione altomedievale, assorbendo le tradizioni, le eredità politiche della tradizione romana tipica del mondo classico. Entrando in Italia i Longobardi, hanno cercato di dare unità alla penisola pur portando con sé elementi derivati dal loro essere barbari, molto diversi dalla tradizione classica romana o da quella bizantina”. Il libro si divide in tre parti: le vicende storiche, le fonti, la vita materiale. Concepito per il vasto pubblico, denso di informazioni puntali frutto delle ultime scoperte archeologiche e ricco di spunti interessanti – dalle origini misteriose alle abitudini delle donne, dal culto dei morti al modo di vestire “alla longobarda”, dai Longobardi “al desco” e dal medico alle tradizioni dalle steppe – il volume vuole essere una sintesi, il più possibile completa, di un argomento complesso e sfaccettato. Interno del Tempietto longobardo a Cividale del Friuli | Foto: Rollroboter (Opera propria) via Wikimedia Creative CommonsCividale del Friuli, primo ducato longobardo dove tutto cominciò Tutto ebbe inizio a Cividale, la città fondata da Giulio Cesare con il nome di Forum Iulii, e che, dando il nome all’intera regione, divenne il capoluogo longobardo del Friuli. “Questa città – spiega l’autrice – che rappresentò un centro fondamentale dal punto di vista politico e culturale, avvalendosi del governo di un’importante élite che fornì molti sovrani alla corona longobarda, potrebbe essere senz’altro il punto di partenza per un itinerario artistico-culturale alla scoperta del popolo longobardo”. Con la sua posizione strategica rilevante, molto vicina ad Aquileia, fu la prima città che i Longobardi si trovarono lungo il loro cammino arrivando dalla Pannonia. Ma c’è di più. In tempi molto più recenti, proprio da Cividale ha avuto inizio quel processo che avrebbe portato, nel 2011, all’inclusione nella lista Unesco del sito seriale Longobardi in Italia: i luoghi del potere (568-774)” che comprende le sette più importanti testimonianze monumentali longobarde esistenti sul territorio italiano. Ma che cos’è che chi visita Cividale alla ricerca delle vestigia longobarde, proprio non deve perdere? “Per ammirare un autentico unicum basta raggiungere il Tempietto longobardo, parte integrante del Monastero di Santa Maria in Valle. Siamo di fronte alla testimonianza meglio conservata e piú spettacolare di scultura e decorazione in stucco di epoca alto-medievale”. Tempietto Longobardo a Cividale del Friuli | Foto: © Peter via FlickrQuesto scrigno delle meraviglie fu realizzato, come cappella privata dai sovrani Astolfo e Giseltrude, tra il 749 e il 756, nel cuore della Gastaldaga cittadina, che ospitava la residenza del funzionario regio. Entrando al suo interno, sei figure femminili che dominano la parte superiore della parete ovest, alte quasi due metri, scolpite in stucco ad altorilievo, comunicano un senso di celestiale leggerezza. Un tempo queste statue presentavano un vivace rivestimento policromo, oggi scomparso. Non conosciamo gli artefici di questa preziosa realizzazione che risale alla metà dell’VIII secolo, ma doveva certo trattarsi di artisti di formazione e cultura bizantine, di maestranze emigrate a seguito della politica iconoclasta inaugurata nei primi decenni dell’VIII secolo dall’imperatore Leone III Isaurico. “Sono molto legata a Cividale – continua Percivaldi – perché questa città ha costituito un punto di svolta nei miei studi, sin da quando, già negli anni Novanta, mi aggiravo tra i luoghi con in mano una copia dell’Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono”. Artista sconosciuto, Maiestas Domini, Rilievo dell’Altare del duca Rachis | Courtesy of Museo Cristiano – Tesoro del Duomo, Cividale del FriuliPer visitare il più importante museo dedicato ai Longobardi, basta invece raggiungere il Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Cividale, con le splendide testimonianze rinvenute nelle ricche necropoli cividalesi e in altre località del ducato longobardo del Friuli. Tra queste l’eccezionale sepoltura privilegiata di “Gisulfo”, l’unica tra le sepolture “principesche” di epoca longobarda a esserci pervenuta integra in Italia. Autentiche chicche del Museo Cristiano di Cividale, testimonianze della cultura iconografica della rinascita liutprandea dell’VIII secolo, sono invece il Battistero ottagonale di Callisto e l’Altare del Duca Rachtis, duca del Friuli. A Santa Maria foris portas uno dei cicli di pittura medievale più importanti d’Europa Proseguendo, attraverso le pagine del libro di Elena Percivaldi, in questo nostro itinerario sulle tracce dei Longobardi, arriviamo a Castelseprio, non lontano da Varese, dove scopriamo il parco archeologico sull’antica Sibrium. Fuori dal borgo si trova la piccola Chiesa di Santa Maria foris portas, riscoperta solo nel 1944, con il suo ciclo di affreschi databili al IX secolo, uno dei cicli di pittura medievale più importanti d’Europa. Maestro di Castelseprio, Storie dell’infanzia di Cristo, Presentazione di Gesù al Tempio, IX secolo, Castelseprio, Chiesa di Santa Maria foris portas /  Public domain via Wikimedia CommonsL’iconografia risulta originale per la presenza di episodi tratti dalle vicende dell’Infanzia di Cristo ispirate ai Vangeli apocrifi, in particolare al Protovangelo di Giacomo, realizzati probabilmente da un pittore di origine sirica. Due capitoli che ci piacciono molto dei Longobardi di Elena Percivaldi sono quelli che descrivono le abilità, dal punto di vista artistico, nelle quali questo popolo eccelse. È noto che fosse molto abile nella lavorazione dei metalli, eccellendo nell’oreficeria e nella decorazione di armi, cinture, monili, oggetti tuttavia di rappresentanza, non usati nella vita quotidiana, ma appartenuti a personaggi dell’aristocrazia guerriera. Alcuni corredi funebri maschili hanno restituito strumenti di artigiani, utilizzati per la lavorazione dei metalli, quali crogioli, bulini, incudini. Un tipo di manufatto particolare era rappresentato dalla “sella plicatilis” in metallo ageminato decorato con motivi geometrici e vegetali. Si trattava di sgabelli pieghevoli da campo, derivati dal modello della “sella castrensis” romana, segno distintivo della persona di rango, emersi ad esempio dalle tombe di Spilamberto, a Modena, e a Nocera Umbra. Da Nocera provengono interessanti corni potori, mentre tra gli oggetti di uso comune ritroviamo le ceramiche.Arte longobarda, Croce di Gisulfo, Metà del VII secolo – post 640 – ante 660, Oro, aminatura, punzonatura, Cividale del Friuli, Palazzo dei Provveditori Veneti, Museo Archeologico Nazionale | Courtesy of Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Friuli – Venezia GiuliaLe decorazioni riflettono un immaginario ricco di rimandi, in particolare agli animali “totemici”, dai cervi ai rapaci. I ritrovamenti archeologici, effettuati a Roma nella cosiddetta “Crypta Balbi” hanno poi dimostrato la presenza di officine artigianali attive tra Tardoantico e Altomedioevo che producevano oggetti suntuari sia di tradizione mediterranea che germanica. Alcune campagne di scavo rivelerebbero la presenza di centri di produzione di ceramica pannonica a Brescia, nell’area di Santa Giulia, a Milano, in zona Piazza Duomo, a Castelseprio, a Verona, in Piemonte. Tipologie che restarono in uso fino alla metà del VII secolo per poi essere soppiantate dalla produzione italica.Il “culto” per l’estetica bizantina Ma quello che più incuriosisce è la capacità dei Longobardi di perfezionarsi ulteriormente dopo lo stanziamento definitivo nella penisola, a contatto con le tecniche di produzione del mondo romano-bizantino. “L’oreficeria in particolare – spiega Elena Percivaldi – rappresenta una sintesi tra le suggestioni del mondo culturale ed estetico “barbarico” e gli stilemi espressivi di quello romano-bizantino e mediterraneo-orientale, a sua volta fecondato in chiave cristiana”. Collana longobarda con quattro dischetti in lamina d’oro, a forma di umbone, provvisti di appiccagnolo, Seconda metà del VI secolo – post 550 ante 599, Cividale del Friuli, Palazzo dei Provveditori Veneti Museo Archeologico Nazionale | Courtesy of Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Friuli – Venezia Giulia A cosa si deve questa sorta di “culto”? “I Longobardi vedevano in Bisanzio il simbolo del prestigio, in quanto eredi dell’antico impero romano al quale guardavano, a partire dal VI secolo, come modello per la gestione della cosa pubblica. Di conseguenza consideravano un punto di riferimento ineludibile anche l’estetica bizantina soprattutto per quanto riguarda i gioielli”. Nel campo dell’edilizia, ritroviamo invece i “maestri commacini” maestranze di muratori e carpentieri specializzati nelle costruzioni, che possedevano ancora le competenze proprie delle corporazioni del mondo antico. Per conoscere quali fossero, nello specifico, le complesse (e interessanti) tecniche di realizzazione dei monili rimandiamo alle pagine del libro. I Longobardi ci lasciano importanti testimonianze a livello artistico e architettonico, soprattutto dall’età di Teodolinda e Agilulfo. Una fervida attività edilizia fu promossa da Teodolinda a Monza, da Desiderio a Brescia, da Liutprando a Pavia, da Arechi II a Benevento e a Salerno. Cappella di Teodolinda, Banchetto delle nozze di Teodolinda, Affresco, Duomo di MonzaRisorsa o sciagura? Fino a che punto l’invasione longobarda fu distruttiva? Questa tematica, al centro di un vivace dibattito tra gli studiosi, ricorre spesso nel libro di Elena Percivaldi. “Sappiamo per certo – spiega l’autrice – che i Longobardi conquistarono il territorio. Tuttavia le distruzioni di città delle quali parlano ad esempio le fonti di ambito papale romano non trovano, a livello archeologico, grosse testimonianze, come potremmo aspettarci da un quadro catastrofista di questo genere. Quella Longobarda fu una migrazione progressiva, avvenuta in tempi lunghi. Paolo Dicono racconta dell’assedio di Pavia durato per tre anni, ma non abbiamo prove archeologiche. Talvolta dalle fonti emerge un quadro esagerato degli eventi storici, non sempre rispondente alla realtà”. Insomma, la catastrofe ci fu? “È difficile dirlo. Sicuramente non fu tanto violenta e terribile come si era abituati a pensarla fino a qualche decennio fa. Ultimamente la storiografia propende verso un’interpretazione più complessa. L’ingresso dei Longobardi comportò indubbiamente un cambiamento locale, a cominciare dalla rivoluzione attuata all’interno dell’élite per la gestione del potere. Resta il fatto che questo popolo ebbe il merito di creare quella sintesi, tra un prima e un dopo, in una dinamica storica complessa, da vero protagonista”.Arte longobarda, Disco in lamina d’oro, raffigurante al centro un cavaliere, con in testa un elmo e armato di lancia e scudo (Odino?), VII secolo – post 600 ante 610, Oro, laminatura, punzonatura, Cividale del Friuli, Palazzo dei Provveditori Veneti Museo Archeologico Nazionale | Courtesy of Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Friuli – Venezia Giulia Leggi anche:• I Longobardi: una mostra “epocale” sul popolo che cambiò la storia• A Napoli arrivano i Longobardi
Source: Arte NEWS

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