Fascino e mistero dal mondo etrusco: la Testa di giovinetto da Fiesole

Le labbra carnose, ben delineate, le sopracciglia folte, i capelli ordinatamente adagiati sulla fronte ad incorniciare un volto morbido, dai tratti idealizzati. Tra le testimonianze più rappresentative della sezione etrusca del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze si colloca la Testa di giovinetto di Fiesole. Questa delicata Testa in bronzo rinvenuta a Fiesole, a pochi chilometri da Firenze, è databile al 330-300 a.C. circa. La testa e parte del collo, le uniche parti del corpo conservatesi, dovevano appartenere ad una scultura di grandi dimensioni. Gli occhi, inseriti successivamente, sono cavi; iride e pupilla dovevano presentarsi intarsiati con un altro materiale colorato. Un velo di mistero avvolge la figura, dal momento che non conosciamo ad oggi l’identità del soggetto rappresentato. Quello che è certo è che la Testa appartenesse ad una statua votiva a misura d’uomo, e che la raffinatezza della composizione sia emblematica dell’alto livello artistico raggiunto dalle officine bronzistiche etrusche. Testa di giovinetto da Fiesole, 330 a.C. circa, Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Polo Museale della Toscana La tradizione del ritratto appare ben radicata nell’ambito di una serie di teste giovanili documentate in tutta l’Etruria, dalla scultura alla ceramica. I lineamenti del viso appaiono spesso convenzionali e quasi identici da una rappresentazione all’altra. Questo piccolo gioiello del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze condivide la sala con la celebre statua a tutto tondo dell’Arringatore (I secolo a.C.), ritratto del nobile etrusco Aulo Metello rappresentato mentre alza il braccio verso l’osservatore e l’ipotetica folla e unica testimonianza integra giunta fino a noi di una grande scultura in metallo dell’epoca tardo-etrusca.Artista sconosciuto, Arringatore, Fine II – Inizi I secolo a.C., Bronzo, 170 cm, Firenze, Museo Archeologico NazionaleAccanto a loro, la celebre Chimera etrusca in bronzo di fine V – inizi IV secolo a.C. Rinvenuta il 15 novembre 1553 ad Arezzo venne subito reclamata dal granduca di Toscana Cosimo I de’ Medici che, come riportato da Benvenuto Cellini nella sua autobiografia, “ricavava grande piacere nel pulirla personalmente con attrezzi da orafo”.Chimera di Arezzo, V secolo a.C circa, Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale La Testa di giovinetto è molto spesso messa in relazione con un’altra testa bronzea rinvenuta a Fiesole e conservata al Museo del Louvre di Parigi. Questa testa in bronzo, acquistata nel 1864 e conservata oggi al museo parigino doveva appartenere ad una statua realizzata probabilmente nel III secolo a.C. Anche per quest’opera lo scultore aveva prestato particolare attenzione alla modellazione del viso e alla resa dei dettagli, conferendo al giovane un’espressione accigliata e assorta. Erede del naturalismo greco e dell’espressionismo italico, quest’opera differisce dalla maggior parte dei generici ritratti realizzati durante il periodo ellenistico e preannuncia il ritratto romano. Ricorda al tempo stesso le effigie del defunto riprodotte sulle urne e sui sarcofagi del III secolo a.C. e le offerte votive in terracotta raffiguranti uomini, donne e bambini, che i pellegrini depositavano nei santuari. La lavorazione del bronzo è particolarmente accurata, come risulta dall’acconciatura, modellata ciocca per ciocca. Ritratto di giovinetto, 300 a.C. circa, Parigi, Museo del LouvreGli altri capolavori del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze Tra il 1619 e il 1621, Giulio Parigi, su disposizione di Cosimo II, decide di ampliare alcuni immobili dei Medici, per farne la residenza della principessa Maria Maddalena de’ Medici, sorella di Cosimo, che, secondo quanto riporta Giorgio Vasari era “fortemente malcomposta di membra”. Il Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze, inizialmente collocato nella sede attuale del Palazzo della Crocetta, si univa così al “Museo Egizio”, che esisteva già dal 1855, per raccogliere il meglio degli scavi di tutta la Toscana, accanto a reperti provenienti dal Lazio e dall’Umbria, con importantissimi manufatti etruschi e romani. Drammaticamente colpito dall’alluvione del 4 novembre 1966 (che portò alla distruzione del Museo Topografico), il Museo, annovera, tra le sue opere principali, la Chimera d’Arezzo, una delle più famose opere della civiltà etrusca (IV secolo a.C.), l’Arringatore (I secolo a.C.), e il bronzo della Minerva d’Arezzo, originale capolavoro etrusco di ispirazione greca, oggetto di recenti studi e analisi. Tra i vasi più importanti della sezione greca spicca invece il cosiddetto Vaso François, dal nome dell’archeologo che lo scoprì nel 1844 in una tomba etrusca non lontano da Chiusi. Sul grande cratere a figure nere, datato attorno al 565 a.C. e firmato dal vasaio Ergotimos e dal pittore Kleitias, è riportata una serie di racconti della mitologia greca.La decorazione a figure nere di questo che costituisce il più antico cratere a volute, si articola su sette livelli, con ben 270 figure e 121 iscrizioni. Kleitias e Ergotimo, Vaso Francois, 570 a.C., Ceramica a figure nere, Firenze, Museo archeologico nazionale Leggi anche:• Un nuovo spazio per il Vaso François• Un nuovo allestimento per il Monetiere del Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze• Da Bologna al MANN, un viaggio sulle tracce degli antichi Etruschi
Source: Arte NEWS

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