Monaci, spiriti e guerrieri. Il Giappone buddista in mostra

Le statue come perfezione divina. Negli spazi espositivi delle Scuderie del Quirinale, 21 sculure, dall’VII al XIV secolo, che arrivano da templi e santuari

di VALENTINA BERNABEI

È una figura dal volto mite, seduta probabilmente in meditazione (zazen), quella che accoglie i visitatori della mostra “Capolavori della scultura buddhista giapponese” a cura di Takeo Oku, alle Scuderie del Quirinale fino al 4 settembre. È la prima opera che si vede e non poteva essere altrimenti dal momento che raffigura Shaka Nyorai, ossia colui che ha raggiunto l’illuminazione una volta concluso il ciclo delle reincarnazioni attraverso i sei mondi, quelli in cui, secondo tutti gli esseri dotati di un’anima devono passare. In questo caso si tratta di un’opera in bronzo di circa 60 centimetri, risalente al VII secolo e proveniente da Tokyo ma tutte le altre 20 opere esposte, dal periodo Asuka al periodo Kamakura (VII-XIV secolo), sono realizzate in legno o materiali lignei.

LE IMMAGINI

Nyorai, insieme a Bosatsu, Myoo e Te, rappresenta una delle figure principali a cui la statuistica di culto giapponese è dedicata. La gentilezza è un sentimento ricorrente sui volti di queste sculture, ma sulle sculture sono incise anche la rabbia e altre emozioni da cui si può risalire all’età storica precisa del Giappone, e allo stile preciso di quel periodo.

L’affermazione della scultura in legno, per esempio, coincide con il periodo “heian” (VIII secolo, dal 784), che comportò diversi mutamenti

sostanziali nelle tecniche e anche nell’uso dei materiali. Tipi di legno particolari venivano fatti anche arrivare in Giappone su importazione se ritenuti validi ai fini della scultura, come il sandalo, con cui fu realizzata “Kannon a undici teste”. La statua, proveniente dal Nara National Museum, è importante perché fu una delle prime immagini del buddhismo esoterico e fu interamente ricavata da un unico blocco di legno, parzialmente dipinto, di sandalo.

Tutte le statue raccolte nell’esposizione romana provengono da templi e santuari giapponesi e, a crearle, sono stati essenzialmente monaci -i cosiddetti busshi- che, anche quando non svolgevano funzioni sacerdotali, mentre scolpivano recitavano mantra, secondo l’insegnamento buddhista.

Info utili
“Capolavori della scultura buddhista giapponese” 
Dal 29 luglio al 4 settembre
Scuderie del Quirinale  via XXIV Maggio 16 Roma
 


Source: Repubblica Arte Speciali

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